Joseph Conceicao

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Joseph Conceicao
Joseph Conceicao.jpg
Born1924
Died13 August 2019 (95 years old)
Other namesJoe Conceicao
EducationDegree in English Literature, Diploma in Adult Education
Alma materSt Anthony's Boys School, St Patrick's School, Raffles College (University of Singapore)
OccupationForeign diplomat, Member of Parliament, Educator
Spouse(s)Anita Mary (m. 1958)
Children2 sons, 1 daughter

Joseph Francis Conceicao (also known as Joe Conceicao) was a former Singaporean foreign ambassador, Member of Parliament and educator. He represented Singapore as a foreign diplomat to Russia (1977 - 1981, 1990 - 1994) and Indonesia (1981 - 1986). He was also the High Commissioner to Australia from 1987 to 1990.[1]

Early life[edit | edit source]

A photo from Joe's childhood, he is pictured in the second row first from right. Photo from Flickr.
Joseph Conceicao (2nd row, first from left) pictured with his siblings. Photo retrieved from Flickr.

Childhood[edit | edit source]

Joe Conceicao was born in 1924 to Eddie and Dulcie Conceicao.[2] He grew up in a kampung along Rangoon Road before moving to Short Street after his father contracted tuberculosis.[3]


When Joe’s father won nearly $15,000 from the lottery, he bought a piece of land on which he built “a large and comfortable house” for the family.[4] When Joe’s father died in 1939, the family had to sell the house and moved to another rented but “roomy bungalow”.[5]

Life during World War II (1942-1945)[edit | edit source]

During World War II, Joe’s family had to relocate from Katong to Newton as the British anticipated an incoming Japanese attack from the sea.[6] At the time, Joe was a plotter in the Observer Corps, a civil defence organisation operating in Serangoon. As a plotter, he traced the course of incoming aircraft.[7] After the surrender of the British to the Japanese, Joe’s family moved from Newton to a single-storey semi-detached house on a street off East Coast Road.[8]


During the Japanese Occupation, Joe was first assigned to St Patrick’s School as an apprentice bricklayer. However, he was unhappy with the constant punishment from the Japanese and resigned.[9] He then went on to work as a grasscutter at Katong. According to Joe, he was paid fifty cents a day and received dry rations of rice and corned beef.[10] He also received a Work Pass that prevented him from being deported to Burma (present-day Myanmar) or Siam (present-day Thailand).[11]


Joe then had a stint at a scrap company where he worked as a tally counter. There, he formed a relationship with a Japanese official named Ebisawa built on their common appreciation of the cultural arts.[12]

Deportation to Bahau Settlement, Negeri Sembilan[edit | edit source]

After his friend, Ebisawa, left the scrap company, Joe followed suit and was subsequently deported. Joe, along with his family and other Eurasians in Singapore, was deported to the Bahau settlement in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Based on his recollection, Bahau was “low-lying, dotted with occasional rises, conducive to swamp-creation - and malaria”.[13] During his time at Bahau, Joe and his family found sustenance by rearing poultry and hunting in the nearby forests. Joe learnt to hunt and fish while he was there.[14]

Education[edit | edit source]

Joe was educated in St Anthony’s Boys’ School,[15] St Patrick’s School and Raffles College,[16] the predecessor of the University of Singapore. A few months after joining Raffles College, Joe was forced to stop school due to the Japanese Occupation.[17]


When WWII ended, Joe resumed his education at Raffles College with a scholarship, majoring in Economics and English. However, his time at the Bahau Settlement made him ill with beri-beri, jaundice and malaria. The college suspected that he had withdrawn from the college due to his absence from lectures and his residence. He dropped out of Raffles College as he was unprepared for the examinations.[18]


Joe eventually went back to complete his university studies at the University of Singapore with a scholarship from the Eurasian Association and a sponsorship from a relative.[19] He also received an Intermediate scholarship at the end of his first year which helped to defray his book costs.[20] At 35 years old, Joe graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature in 1959.[21][22] In 1965, Joe went to Manchester to complete a Diploma in Adult Education. He graduated with distinction.[23]

Marriage & family[edit | edit source]

Joe and his wife, Anita Mary, pictured in 2010. Photo from Ellipsis Learning.

Joe was married to Anita Mary. The couple first met at a family friend’s house in Malacca when Joe was looking up elderly family-friends for a chat.[24] Joe described Anita Mary as “a svelte young woman” with a “luminous look”.[25] Following their first encounter, he made many more trips to the “uncle’s” house to get to know her. Immediately after he attained his general degree, the couple got married in Malacca on 7 June 1958.[26]


The couple has three children - two sons, Ian and Peter, and a daughter, Karen.[27][28] His three children live and work overseas.[29]

Early career[edit | edit source]

Joseph Conceicao pictured in 1967. Photo from National Archives Singapore.

Joe took up several jobs after dropping out of Raffles College. He started as a carpet seller in an Indian shop in town before working as a tally counter for a Dutch company manufacturing steel drums as containers for petroleum. After leaving that job, Joe joined the Singapore Police Force as a records clerk. Following that, he worked at Shell for a short period.[30]

Educator[edit | edit source]

At one point, Joe was an unqualified teacher at St Patrick’s School, teaching ‘O’ and ‘A-level’ English Literature. After completing his bachelor’s degree, he rejoined St Patrick’s School as a teacher.


In 1964, Joe joined the University of Singapore’s newly-created Department of Extramural Studies as the assistant to the British Director.[31] His role was to ensure that promotional material for the courses was produced and promoted on various channels. There, he worked on extending his network and engaged in adult education and community development with a focus on the people. He subsequently became the Head of the Department of Extramural Studies.[32]

Political career[edit | edit source]

Joe was brought into politics by the late Mr Goh Keng Swee, who was concerned with the education level of the Members of Parliament (MPs).[33] Mr Goh was introduced to Joe by Maurice Baker, one of Singapore’s first-generation foreign diplomats.[34] Mr Goh recruited Joe Conceicao to join the People’s Action Party (PAP) as a candidate for the 1968 general elections.[35]

MP for Katong SMC (1968 - 1984)[edit | edit source]

Joe Conceicao (left) pictured in 1973 at an SYF music and dance presentation. Photo from National Archives Singapore.

Joe served as the MP for the Katong Single Member Constituency (SMC) for 16 years from 1968 to 1984.[36] He was unopposed during the elections as Katong was a new constituency.[37] Joe was mentored by Ng Yeow Chong, then-MP for Mountbatten.[38] During Joe’s first victory dinner, when he was about to make his speech, the stage had collapsed on the spot he was standing on, causing him to fall through the stage. However, Joe took the incident in his stride which made the residents more receptive to him as their MP.[39]


Joe was popular with his constituency, having been fondly called “Mr Kong” as many residents found it difficult to pronounce his name. Joe “gladly answered” to the nickname and embraced it, perceiving it as “true warmth”.[40] He once joked that the name made him “...appear to be a devout and filial descendant of Confucius”.[41] As the MP for Katong, Joe sympathised with the plight of the people, particularly their poor living conditions. In one case, Joe recollected:

“... a huge building, block ten, or block eleven in [his] constituency, which had a thousand rooms. When you entered into that block, you couldn't see anything except if somebody opened the door somewhere and light came in.”[42]

Noteworthy incidents[edit | edit source]

As an MP, Joe recalled being called up by Mr Lee Kuan Yew, who passed him a report by the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB) detailing that some people in his constituency had been showing dirty films in a branch office. Joe promptly fired the perpetrator.[43]


Another incident was when a resident in his constituency requested for a temporary permit to run his snack shop. When Joe turned him down, the furious resident scolded him before walking out. Joe called him back and told him that he would try to get the resident his license. He then approached a man named Chandra, who was the head of the Land Office back then, to request for the permit. The permit was then approved.[44]


Joe has also officiated the opening of Broadrick Secondary School and the now-defunct Maju Secondary School in his capacity as the MP for Katong.[45]

Public service appointments[edit | edit source]

Under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Joe served as a foreign diplomat to Russia, Indonesia and Australia. Joe was also an eminent member of the Adult Education Board (today’s Institute of Technical Education), the National Museum Board and the People’s Association.

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Russia (1977-1981, 1990-1994)[edit | edit source]

In 2004, Joseph Conceicao published a book recollecting his time as a foreign diplomat. Photo from National Archives Singapore.

Joe was made Singapore’s ambassador to Russia for two terms, from July 1977 to April 1981 and from July 1990 to February 1994. According to PM Lee Hsien Loong, Joe’s work during this time helped to set a good foundation for Singapore’s friendly relations with Russia.[46]


Joe was ambassador to Russia when the incident of the Singaporean cypher officer being seduced by a Russian spy occurred. Joe asserted that the man “did betray Singapore” by divulging information on the encryption code that Singapore used.[47]


Joe recalled the incident when Mr Lee Kuan Yew could not meet with Alexei Kosygin, a former prime minister of Russia, as Kosygin had suddenly fallen ill. Despite Mr Lee’s insistence to meet “anybody”, mentioning “the acting Prime Minister or something like that”, the Russians disagreed as they wanted Mr Lee to meet Kosygin. Hence, the trip was cancelled which made Mr Lee “very angry”.[48]


During Joe’s second term as ambassador to Russia, Mr Lee Kuan Yew was arranged to meet Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow in 1990. However, the Russian leader ended up being three hours late for the meeting. Joe recalled that “everyone panicked, including the Russian protocol officers, who disappeared from the hotel because they knew Mr Lee as a hot-tempered man”.[49] Yet Mr Lee told him coolly that it was “a great opportunity for them” as they were witnessing “the vanishing of an empire”.[50]

High Commissioner to Australia (1987-1990)[edit | edit source]

Joe’s posting to Australia as High Commissioner was aimed at forging a stronger relationship between Singaporean and Australian leaders. Joe played a part in encouraging and reporting on the Five Power Defence Arrangement, a series of defence relationships aimed at responding to threats of an armed attack and whether measures should be taken jointly or separately.[51]


Joe’s experience as High Commissioner to Australia was less favourable than his assignment to Indonesia due to several incidences. One such incident was when then-Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew was scheduled to visit Australia. Joe had been informed that the event was “going to be very ordinary” which led him to inform Mr Lee that the event was informal. However, the event turned out to be a formal affair and that made Mr Lee very angry with Joe. However, the wife of Australia’s Chief Minister told Mrs Lee Kuan Yew that the information passed to Joe had been inaccurate and hence Joe was not to be blamed.[52]

Ambassador to Indonesia (1981-1986)[edit | edit source]

Joe’s posting to Indonesia helped to develop Singapore’s cultural ties with Indonesia, deepening the relationship between the two countries.[53]


Joe expressed that his time as ambassador to Indonesia brought him “a tremendous sense of self-relief” as he had suffered heart attacks due to the anxieties brought about from his time as ambassador to Russia.[54] He found Indonesia favourable, mentioning that he was close friends with Des Alwi and Ali Murtopo. Joe’s relationship with Indonesians was close, such that they even called him “Pak Joe” in which “Pak” is a term of respect meaning father.[55]


During his stint as ambassador to Indonesia, Joe struck up a strong friendship with Supardjo Rustum. When they first met at the 20th anniversary of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea event, Supardjo Rustum had made fun of him and Singapore.[56] However, Joe did not react and this led to the start of an “extraordinary friendship” between the two.[57] Supardjo Rustum had invited Joe to follow him to East Timor where he met Governor Carrascalao.[58]


Joe’s role in Indonesia established the “people-to-people relationship”. However, he could not “generate a good business relationship” that would help Indonesians to develop their economy. Barry Desker took over the job to expand the relationship that Singapore had with Batam, Bintan and Riau.[59]

Retirement[edit | edit source]

Upon his retirement, Joe forayed into Theological Studies, pursuing a certificate from the Australian Catholic University.

Selected works[edit | edit source]

Joseph Conceicao (right) at his book launch in 2004. Photo from National Archives Singapore.

Joe has written several books including an autobiography, a discussion about Indonesian politics drawn from his experience as ambassador to Indonesia and a reflection on the race riots that occurred in post-independence Singapore. The titles include:

Title Year published Author Publisher
Flavours of Change: Destiny and Diplomacy – Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador 2004 J. F. Conceicao Horizon Books
Indonesia's Six Years of Living Dangerously 2005
Singapore and The Many-Headed Monster 2007
Love and War In Old Malacca 2011 JN Cooray Publishing House
The Travels and Adventures of Sang Dol 2011

People’s Association[edit | edit source]

Gerald Singham, Vice Chairman of the racial harmony advocacy group OnePeople.sg, shared that Joe would engage youths at the racial harmony camps OnePeople.sg holds. At these camps, Joe shared his memories of how the Chinese and Malays living in kampungs protected one another during the 1960s race riots.[60]

Eurasian Association (2010-2016)[edit | edit source]

Joe served as Trustee to the Eurasian Association in 2010. As one of the Trustees of the Eurasian Association, he was part of the decision-makers for any expenditures above S$150,000. He stepped down in 2016.[61]

Death[edit | edit source]

Joe passed away on 13 August 2019 from a heart attack at the age of 95. He is survived by his wife Anita Mary, his two sons and his daughter. The wake was held at 5000K Lagoon View. He was cremated at Mandai Crematorium on 19 August 2019.[62]

Memorial & tributes[edit | edit source]

Joe received many tributes from his former party members and others who have worked with him. The People’s Action Party (PAP) made a tribute for him on their Facebook Page. Mr Alex Yam, the Executive Director of the PAP, dedicated a post to Joe talking about his achievements and contributions to Singapore.[63] Foreign Minister Vivian Balakrishnan also dedicated a post to Joe, mentioning that he was always generous with his time and offered sound advice to those who needed it.[64]

References / Citations[edit | edit source]

  1. Koh, Tommy T. B., and Li Lin. Chang. “Life in the Former USSR,” in The Little Red Dot: Reflections by Singapore's Diplomats, Volume 1. Singapore: World Scientific, 2005.
  2. Conceicao, J. F. “A naming and a rooting,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 4-8. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  3. Conceicao, J. F. “A savouring of change,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  4. Conceicao, J. F. “A savouring of change,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  5. Conceicao, J. F. “A savouring of change,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  6. Conceicao, J. F. “Defenceless under Japanese attack,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  7. Conceicao, J. F. “Defenceless under Japanese attack,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  8. Conceicao, J. F. “Defenceless under Japanese attack,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  9. Conceicao, J. F. “Labouring under Japanese Occupation,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  10. Conceicao, J. F. “Labouring under Japanese Occupation,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  11. Conceicao, J. F. “Labouring under Japanese Occupation,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  12. Conceicao, J. F. “Labouring under Japanese Occupation,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  13. Conceicao, J. F. “Bahau - the Japanese scam,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  14. Conceicao, J. F. “Bahau - the Japanese scam,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 27-33. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  15. Conceicao, J. F. “Growing up in a community and initiation rites,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 8-24. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  16. Asad Latif. “Turbulent days in Moscow ... and more“. The Straits Times. September 25, 2004. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
  17. Conceicao, J. F. “Turmoil and war,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 58-63. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  18. Conceicao, J. F. “Study and failure,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 166-169. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  19. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  20. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  21. Leong, Weng Kam. “Never too old to start a new chapter in life”. The Straits Times. March 06, 2011. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
  22. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  23. Conceicao, J. F. “Sojourn in a hospitable land,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 183-185. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  24. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  25. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  26. Conceicao, J. F. “University and consequences,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 177-182. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  27. Leong, Weng Kam. “Never too old to start a new chapter in life”. The Straits Times. March 06, 2011. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
  28. Conceicao, J. F. “Sojourn in a hospitable land,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 183-185. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  29. Leong, Weng Kam. “Never too old to start a new chapter in life”. The Straits Times. March 06, 2011. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
  30. Conceicao, J. F. “Study and failure,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 166-169. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  31. Conceicao, J. F. “New roles and responsibilities,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 183-185. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  32. Conceicao, J. F. “New roles and responsibilities,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 183-185. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  33. Conceicao, J. F. “I harken to the call of politics,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 188-194. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  34. Conceicao, J. F. “I harken to the call of politics,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 188-194. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  35. Conceicao, J. F. “I harken to the call of politics,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 188-194. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  36. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95”. The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95
  37. Walk-over April 13 Polling Day in Singapore”. The Straits Times. February 18, 1968. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
  38. Conceicao, J. F. “I harken to the call of politics,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 188-194. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  39. Conceicao, J. F. “I harken to the call of politics,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 188-194. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  40. Pereira, Alexius. “They Made Their Mark II: Contributors to Singapore’s Developments,” in Singapore Eurasians: Memories, Hopes and Dreams, edited by Alexius Pereira, 331-348. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2017.
  41. Pereira, Alexius. “They Made Their Mark II: Contributors to Singapore’s Developments,” in Singapore Eurasians: Memories, Hopes and Dreams, edited by Alexius Pereira, 331-348. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2017.
  42. Conceicao, Joseph. "Joseph Conceicao [Singapore, Diplomat, Member of Parliament]". Digital Narratives of Asia. June 02, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/isl_dna/16
  43. Conceicao, J. F. “Parliamentary encounters,” in Flavours of Change: Destiny & Diplomacy: Recollections of a Singapore Ambassador, 202-205. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2004.
  44. Conceicao, Joseph. "Joseph Conceicao [Singapore, Diplomat, Member of Parliament]". Digital Narratives of Asia. June 02, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/isl_dna/16
  45. “Changes of Dakota – Demolition of Former Broadrick and Maju Secondary Schools.” Remember Singapore. March 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://remembersingapore.org/2016/03/28/former-broadrick-and-maju-secondary-schools/
  46. Kurohi, Rei. “PM Lee pays tribute to late MP and diplomat Joseph Conceicao in condolence letter.” The Straits Times. August 16, 2019. Accessed November 01, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/politics/pm-lee-posts-facebook-tribute-to-late-diplomat-joseph-conceicao
  47. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  48. Conceicao, Joseph. Joseph Conceicao [Singapore, Diplomat, Member of Parliament]. Digital Narratives of Asia. June 02, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/isl_dna/16
  49. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95”. The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95
  50. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95”. The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95
  51. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  52. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  53. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  54. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  55. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  56. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  57. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  58. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  59. Conceicao, Joseph Francis. “CONCEICAO, Joseph FrancisThe Public Service, Accession Number 003055”. National Archives of Singapore. May 23, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/52e9ce8b-1161-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad
  60. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95.” The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed November 01, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95
  61. Pereira, Alexius. “They Made Their Mark II: Contributors to Singapore’s Developments,” in Singapore Eurasians: Memories, Hopes and Dreams, edited by Alexius Pereira, 331-348. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2017.
  62. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95.” The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed November 01, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95
  63. Yam, Alex. “Dedication post to Joe Conceicao.” Facebook. August 14, 2019. Accessed November 01, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/zayam/posts/10157623599728453
  64. Ho, Grace. “Ex-MP, diplomat Joseph Conceicao dies, aged 95.” The Straits Times. August 15, 2019. Accessed November 01, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-mp-diplomat-joseph-conceicao-dies-aged-95